The Kura Basin
Block 12 is situated in the Kura Basin, which is a Late Tertiary back-arc feature located between the predominantly carbonate rocks of the Greater Caucasus Mountains and the volcanic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. The basin was created from Alpine and Himalayan compression which began in Early Eocene and peaked 22 million years later in Late Pliocene. As shown in the diagrams below, the basin has been shaped by the collision, accretion and rotation that took place between the Eastern European Platform, the Arabian Plate and several micro plates. This activity resulted in the development of several structural elements that have provided the basis for oil and gas migration and trapping.
The main productive intervals of the basin are from the Tertiary section, consisting of Upper and Lower Pliocene, Upper Miocene and the Middle Eocene clastic intervals. Newly prospective reservoirs are considered to be the Oligocene clastic section as well as the Mesozoic clastic and carbonates associated with the Cretaceous period. The Oligocene Maykop shales are the principal source for oil and gas in the basin.